SEO from A to Z

Web positioning is a complex issue. The list of disciplines and strategies is as long as the terms that are used and, as a beginner, it is difficult to know for sure what is meant by words like link power, SERP (search engine result pages) or backlinks ( external links). Therefore, in this guide we offer detailed information on the most relevant terms on search engine positioning.

Panda Update

The update of Google Panda was carried out in 2011. This included a permanent modification of Google’s algorithm for positioning on the Internet and, basically, changed the way of functioning of search engine optimization. Because of the update, poor quality pages were penalized in the ranking. Not only were important factors such as the profile of external links, the percentage of rebound or the times of permanence, but also the evaluation of the quality of the contents. While genuine (“unique”) and high-quality content has an added value for readers and is judged positively, duplicate content and a high density of keywords leads to penalties.

Since the update of Google Panda, the expression ” Content is King” (“content is king”) has acquired meaning, since the quality of such content now has a greater influence on the SERP (pages of search engine results) .

Penguin Update

Google Penguin strictly refers to a series of updates to the Google algorithm carried out between April 2012 and October 2014 that had a great influence on the analysis of web positioning. The objective was to reduce spam and low quality links and avoid intentional manipulation of search results. What was done was to develop an algorithm that would bring to light the artificial optimization of web pages (eg the construction of links unusually fast, the excessive use of keywords and the irrelevant environments in which some links are produced). Google prohibits these spam techniques and whoever does not comply with these rules may have to face the penalties of the search engine.

Anchor text

The anchor text or anchor text is the text of a hyperlink that links to a web page . When you click on the text, which is usually highlighted, it redirects to the destination URL. The destination URL and the anchor text are indicated separately and, on the web page, the reader will only see the selected text, but not the URL.

Thus, the URL and the anchor text are integrated into the source text as follows:

<a href=””> Anchortext </a>

In this example, only “Anchortext” will be visible.

In the field of search engine optimization, we can distinguish between:

  • Brand anchor text or Anchor text of brand (brand or domain of destination in the name)
  • Money anchor text (contains a Money Keyword )
  • Compound anchor text or Anchor text combined (combination of Money Keyword and brand)
  • Non Money non Brand Anchor text (contains the name of a brand or company and Money Keywords .) Many of these combinations of words act naturally as combined anchor texts or money, and they show the promotional intent of the administrator of the page. web, such as through messages such as “Keep reading” or “Click here”.)

Black Hat SEO

The well-known Black Hat SEO refers to an unethical strategy of search engine positioning. The name comes from the cowboy movies in which the bad guy is represented with a black hat and the good guy with a white hat (see White Hat SEO ). Due to the concept of “unethical”, the guidelines of search engines such as Google or Bing are ignored. When creating links , spam practices are used , as in the case of external links that redirect foreign pages to Spanish homepages, and if these methods come to light, search engines exclude websites from being indexed.

Duplicate content

The duplicate content refers to content that is very similar or identical to that of other web pages. This has a negative influence on the ranking of search engines, so it is advisable not to resort to its use. Google gives preference to “unique” content, that is, genuine, high-quality content. Therefore, if the crawler finds identical content on different pages, it will lower the ranking of the last page that has uploaded that content to the Internet. In addition, in the framework of SEO, said content will be located and replaced.


A crawler (also known as a web spider or bot) travels the global computer network (WWW) automatically looking for pages to analyze them following specific criteria. The crawler operates independently and automatically repeats the tasks assigned to it. Search engines like Google use crawlers to index content. In this way, new web pages are included, those that no longer exist are deleted and those still existing are updated.

External link

The backlinks or external links, are those that link some web pages with others and are important because they exert a positive influence on the positioning in the search engines. An external link of a trustworthy website with a relevant theme (in this respect, Google sets a quality factor), it will make the search engines see it as a worthy reference page and, in addition, it will increase your TrustRank. The greater this algorithm, the higher the level of reliability with which Google will classify the links of said web page. The link profile of a page (number and quality of links) is one of the most important positioning factors for Google and other search engines, but also a key point for web positioning.

Internal link

The internal links refer to a subpage within a web page and are one of the most important tools of web positioning. In the first place, significant internal references have an added value for readers, since through them it is possible to quickly access more information. In addition, these links serve to optimize the structure of web pages and represent a quality criterion relevant to Google in regard to the evaluation of the pages. The Google crawler reads the internal structure of the web links and takes it into account when making the ranking. The link juice, which is also transmitted through internal links, serves to improve the positioning of subpages and category pages.

Title tag

The “title” element establishes the title of a web page and is displayed both in the browser and in the search results list of Google. Through it, the user can directly access the web page. To obtain a good click rate it is important that it is formulated in a simple, precise and expressive way . The “title” tag is one of the positioning factors in Google and will also be taken into account in the search engine positioning OnPage. Each URL will have a unique “title” and ideally, the keyword appears at the beginning of said “title”.


A keyword is a keyword or a combination of keywords. In the context of SEO, they are used to refer typically to the terms that users write in search engines to find information on specific topics. That is why web pages have to be optimized with certain keywords so that, when the search engine performs the relevant searches, they are classified as relevant and, as a consequence, appear as high as possible in the list of results.

Landing page

A landing page is a web page designed exclusively for advertising and marketing purposes. Search engine optimization is used to make changes in the landing page with the aim of showing it in the search results for the relevant keywords. These types of pages are also defined as advertising brochures through which specific products or services can be sold. It is recommended that the essential contents, information and a direct call to action (“Call to Action”) be presented clearly and accurately.

Link building

Link building is a technique that involves the deliberate construction of a profile of external links, and emphasizes both the quantity and the quality of those links. Because these are external links, optimization is not done through the page itself, but the contact with third-party pages. Grouping these references is one of the most important tasks of OffPage optimization. Since both Google and other search engines qualify external links as references, they create a positioning factor of great importance.

Link Juice

The link power , also known as link juice, is determined according to the distribution of external links in a web page. In this regard, both quantity and quality (strength, reputation) play an important role. Link juice can be managed through the link from one page to another and the better Google’s assessment of the source of an external link, the greater the link juice authority that occurs with that external link to the page.

Meta description

The meta description is a short text of approx. 156 characters that describes the content of an HTML document. It is about giving the user an orientation of the content in one or two sentences. This meta description appears in the list of results (SERP) as a component of a snippet under the title. If the webmaster does not include any description, Google independently generates a text using the first lines of the web page or the fragments of sentences containing the keywords. As a result of web positioning, meta tags(which are composed of meta description, title-tag or title tag and meta keywords or meta keywords), which are easy to use and contain keywords that generate many searches, will be deposited in the header of an HTML document.

Money Keyword

Money keywords are keywords with a high search volume and competition, p. ex. “Buy shoes” or “cheap phones” with which most stores want to get a good position. However, if the search results get a position far from the top of the list, it is more difficult for customers to find these stores. In the case of many of these keywords, it is assumed that the people who search for them intend to buy. The logic of this argument is that if you write “buy shoes” in a search engine, after that hides a transactional purchase intention. The person doing the search wants to buy, but he does not know for sure where he can do it. In the field of Search Engine Advertising (SEA), most money keywords obtain a high Cost per Click (CPC). However, in terms of search engine optimization it is recommended to be careful when using these types of keywords, because if they are used excessively, Google may threaten to impose sanctions.


With the attribute “nofollow” can be indicated those links that Google should not take into account in indexing. To do this, the rel = “nofollow” attribute will be deposited next to the link in the HTML code of the web page. In this way, the Google crawler will receive the information that the link can not be traced. When Google created the attribute in 2005, the web operators were asked to apply the “nofollow” attribute to all of the links that were not editorial in nature.. For this purpose, manipulation of the profile of external links is excluded (eg through a new entry in the guestbook) and the so common spam links are limited. Nowadays, “nofollow” links belong to a natural link profile and are taken into account in the search engine optimization analysis.


Google’s penalties are all sanctions that Google performs on a web page. They include both the manuals and those related to the algorithms and, as a general rule, they occur when the rules of Google’s webmaster are violated. These are manifested by decreasing the security indexes or obtaining a bad classification in the SERP (pages of search engine results).

SEO OffPage

The SEO OffPage or OffPage optimization, deals with all the SEO measures that take place outside the web page itself. This concerns all external factors, particularly backlinks, which influence the positioning of the page itself. Since the profile of external links is a positioning factor, the bulk of the OffPage efforts is in the construction of the links. In this respect, the most diverse strategies are used.

To learn more about SEO OnPage and OffPage , read our text on SEO for beginners .

SEO OnPage

The SEO OnPage or OnPage optimization, refers to all those SEO measures that are taken in relation to the website itself or that take place on that page. Optimization is the responsibility of the webmaster and does not depend on third parties. This is, in general terms, the editorial adjustments (search for keywords) and content optimization . The structural and technical aspects will also be taken into account in the framework of OnPage optimization.


SERP is the abbreviation of ” Search Engine Result Page” , which means pages of results of the search engines. In the SERP, the results of user searches are classified as snippets ( title , link and meta description). The classification is governed by the criterion of relevance and it catalogs the corresponding search engine through the different positioning factors, such as user ratings, external links and the time spent by visitors to web pages. The goal of all search engine optimization measures is to appear as high as possible in the list of SERP search results.

White Hat SEO

White Hat SEO is the opposite of Black Hat SEO . In this case, the rules of the search engine will be met in a rigorous manner , so that there is a clear distance with spam tactics. Between White Hat SEO and Black Hat SEO is the Gray Hat SEO variant , which forms the most common work systems in the field of web optimization. In this regard, webmasters usually comply, in principle, the rules of the search engines, from time to time they interpret them freely or resort, sometimes, to the odd trick.